NONCODE is an integrated knowledge database dedicated to non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), that is to say, RNAs that function without being translated into proteins. All ncRNAs in NONCODE were filtered automatically from literature and GenBank, and were later manually curated. The distinctive features of NONCODE are as follows: (i) the ncRNAs in NONCODE include almost all the types of ncRNAs, except transfer RNAs and ribosomal RNAs. (ii) All ncRNA sequences and their related information (e.g. function, cellular role, cellular location, chromosomal information, etc.) in NONCODE have been confirmed manually by consulting relevant literature: more than 80% of the entries are based on experimental data. (iii) Based on the cellular process and function, which a given ncRNA is involved in, we introduced a novel classification system, labeled process function class, to integrate existing classification systems. (iv) In addition, some 1100 ncRNAs have been grouped into nine other classes according to whether they are specific to gender or tissue or associated with tumors and diseases, etc. (v) NONCODE provides a user-friendly interface, a visualization platform and a convenient search option, allowing efficient recovery of sequence, regulatory elements in the flanking sequences, secondary structure, related publications and other information. The first release of NONCODE (v1.0) contains 5339 non-redundant sequences from 861 organisms, including eukaryotes, eubacteria, archaebacteria, virus and viroids. Access is free for all users through a web interface at http://noncode.bioinfo.org.cn.
The NONCODE database is an integrated knowledge database designed for the analysis of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Since NONCODE was first released 3 years ago, the number of known ncRNAs has grown rapidly, and there is growing recognition that ncRNAs play important regulatory roles in most organisms. In the updated version of NONCODE (NONCODE v2.0), the number of collected ncRNAs has reached 206 226, including a wide range of microRNAs, Piwi-interacting RNAs and mRNA-like ncRNAs. The improvements brought to the database include not only new and updated ncRNA data sets, but also an incorporation of BLAST alignment search service and access through our custom UCSC Genome Browser. NONCODE can be found under http://www.noncode.org or http://noncode.bioinfo.org.cn.
Facilitated by the rapid progress of high-throughput sequencing technology, a large number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in mammalian transcriptomes over the past few years. LncRNAs have been shown to play key roles in various biological processes such as imprinting control, circuitry controlling pluripotency and differentiation, immune responses and chromosome dynamics. Notably, a growing number of lncRNAs have been implicated in disease etiology. With the increasing number of published lncRNA studies, the experimental data on lncRNAs (e.g. expression profiles, molecular features and biological functions) have accumulated rapidly. In order to enable a systematic compilation and integration of this information, we have updated the NONCODE database (http://www.noncode.org) to version 3.0 to include the first integrated collection of expression and functional lncRNA data obtained from re-annotated microarray studies in a single database. NONCODE has a user-friendly interface with a variety of search or browse options, a local Genome Browser for visualization and a BLAST server for sequence-alignment search. In addition, NONCODE provides a platform for the ongoing collation of ncRNAs reported in the literature. All data in NONCODE are open to users, and can be downloaded through the website or obtained through the SOAP API and DAS services.
NONCODE (http://www.bioinfo.org/noncode/) is an integrated knowledge database dedicated to non-coding RNAs (excluding tRNAs and rRNAs). Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been implied in diseases and identified to play important roles in various biological processes. Since NONCODE version 3.0 was released 2 years ago, discovery of novel ncRNAs has been promoted by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In this update of NONCODE, we expand the ncRNA data set by collection of newly identified ncRNAs from literature published in the last 2 years and integration of the latest version of RefSeq and Ensembl. Particularly, the number of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has increased sharply from 73 327 to 210 831. Owing to similar alternative splicing pattern to mRNAs, the concept of lncRNA genes was put forward to help systematic understanding of lncRNAs. The 56 018 and 46 475 lncRNA genes were generated from 95 135 and 67 628 lncRNAs for human and mouse, respectively. Additionally, we present expression profile of lncRNA genes by graphs based on public RNA-seq data for human and mouse, as well as predict functions of these lncRNA genes. The improvements brought to the database also include an incorporation of an ID conversion tool from RefSeq or Ensembl ID to NONCODE ID and a service of lncRNA identification. NONCODE is also accessible through http://www.noncode.org/.
NONCODE (http://www.bioinfo.org/noncode/) is an interactive database that aims to present the most complete collection and annotation of non-coding RNAs, especially long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The recently reduced cost of RNA sequencing has produced an explosion of newly identified data. Revolutionary third-generation sequencing methods have also contributed to more accurate annotations. Accumulative experimental data also provides more comprehensive knowledge of lncRNA functions. In this update, NONCODE has added six new species, bringing the total to 16 species altogether. The lncRNAs in NONCODE have increased from 210 831 to 527,336. For human and mouse, the lncRNA numbers are 167,150 and 130,558, respectively. NONCODE 2016 has also introduced three important new features: (i) conservation annotation; (ii) the relationships between lncRNAs and diseases; and (iii) an interface to choose high-quality datasets through predicted scores, literature support and long-read sequencing method support. NONCODE is also accessible through http://www.noncode.org/.
The rapid development of high-throughput sequencing technologies and bioinformatics algorithms now enables detection and profiling of a large number of noncoding transcripts. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are longer than 200 nucleotides, are accumulating with important roles involved in biological processes and tissue physiology. In this chapter, we describe the use of NONCODEv4, a database that provide a comprehensive catalog of noncoding RNAs with particularly detailed annotations for lncRNAs. NONCODEv4 stores more than half million transcripts, of which more than 200,000 are lncRNAs. NONCODEv4 raises the concept of lncRNA genes and explores their expression and functions based on public transcriptome data. NONCODEv4 also integrated a series of online tools and have a web interface easy to use. NONCODEv4 is available at http://www.noncode.org/ http://www.bioinfo.org/ noncode.
NONCODE (http://www.bioinfo.org/noncode/) is a systematic database that is dedicated to presenting the most complete collection and annotation of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), especially long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Since NONCODE 2016 was released two years ago, the amount of novel identified ncRNAs has been enlarged by the reduced cost of next-generation sequencing, which has produced an explosion of newly identified data. The third-generation sequencing revolution has also offered longer and more accurate annotations. Moreover, accumulating evidence confirmed by biological experiments has provided more comprehensive knowledge of lncRNA functions. The ncRNA data set was expanded by collecting newly identified ncRNAs from literature published over the past two years and integration of the latest versions of RefSeq and Ensembl. Additionally, pig was included in the database for the first time, bringing the total number of species to 17. The number of lncRNAs in NONCODEv5 increased from 527 336 to 548 640. NONCODEv5 also introduced three important new features: (i) human lncRNA-disease relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism-lncRNA-disease relationships were constructed; (ii) human exosome lncRNA expression profiles were displayed; (iii) the RNA secondary structures of NONCODE human transcripts were predicted. NONCODEv5 is also accessible through http://www.noncode.org/.
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