MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA gene products about 22 nt long that are processed by Dicer from precursors with a characteristic hairpin secondary structure. Guidelines are presented for the identification and annotation of new miRNAs from diverse organisms, particularly so that miRNAs can be reliably distinguished from other RNAs such as small interfering RNAs. We describe specific criteria for the experimental verification of miRNAs, and conventions for naming miRNAs and miRNA genes.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are approximately 22-nt RNA segments that are involved in the regulation of protein expression primarily by binding to one or more target sites on an mRNA transcript and inhibiting translation. MicroRNAs are likely to factor into multiple developmental pathways, multiple mechanisms of gene regulation, and underlie an array of inherited disease processes and phenotypic determinants. Several computational programs exist to predict miRNA targets in mammals, fruit flies, worms, and plants.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of small noncoding RNAs capable of regulating other genes' expression. Much progress has been made in computational target prediction of miRNAs in recent years. More than 10 miRNA target prediction programs have been established, yet, the prediction of animal miRNA targets remains a challenging task. We have developed miRecords, an integrated resource for animal miRNA-target interactions.
'miR2Disease', a manually curated database, aims at providing a comprehensive resource of microRNA deregulation in various human diseases. The current version of miR2Disease documents 1939 curated relationships between 299 human microRNAs and 94 human diseases by reviewing more than 600 published papers. Around one-seventh of the microRNA-disease relationships represent the pathogenic roles of deregulated microRNA in human disease.
Exosomes, membrane microvesicles (40-100 nm) secreted by most cell types, can be isolated in several ways while characterizing them is heavily based on electron microscopy and, most importantly, the identification of exosome marker proteins. Researchers rely on the identification of certain exosomal marker proteins including Alix, CD9 and CD63 to confirm the presence of exosomes in their preparations. An evolutionary-conserved set of protein molecules have been identified in most exosomes studied to date.
It has been reported that increasingly microRNAs are associated with diseases. However, the patterns among the microRNA-disease associations remain largely unclear. In this study, in order to dissect the patterns of microRNA-disease associations, we performed a comprehensive analysis to the human microRNA-disease association data, which is manually collected from publications. We built a human microRNA associated disease network. Interestingly, microRNAs tend to show similar or different dysfunctional evidences for the similar or different disease clusters, respectively.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level and are therefore important cellular components. As is true for protein-coding genes, the transcription of miRNAs is regulated by transcription factors (TFs), an important class of gene regulators that act at the transcriptional level. The correct regulation of miRNAs by TFs is critical, and increasing evidence indicates that aberrant regulation of miRNAs by TFs can cause phenotypic variations and diseases.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membraneous vesicles released by a variety of cells into their microenvironment. Recent studies have elucidated the role of EVs in intercellular communication, pathogenesis, drug, vaccine and gene-vector delivery, and as possible reservoirs of biomarkers. These findings have generated immense interest, along with an exponential increase in molecular data pertaining to EVs.
The interaction between genetic factors and environmental factors has critical roles in determining the phenotype of an organism. In recent years, a number of studies have reported that the dysfunctions on microRNA (miRNAs), environmental factors and their interactions have strong effects on phenotypes and even may result in abnormal phenotypes and diseases, whereas there has been no a database linking miRNAs, environmental factors and phenotypes.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding elements involved in the post-transcriptional down-regulation of gene expression through base pairing with messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Through this mechanism, several miRNA-mRNA pairs have been described as critical in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, including early embryonic development and pathological conditions. Many of these pairs (such as miR-15b/BCL2 in apoptosis or BART-6/BCL6 in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas) were experimentally discovered and/or computationally predicted.