We predict regulatory targets of vertebrate microRNAs (miRNAs) by identifying mRNAs with conserved complementarity to the seed (nucleotides 2-7) of the miRNA. An overrepresentation of conserved adenosines flanking the seed complementary sites in mRNAs indicates that primary sequence determinants can supplement base pairing to specify miRNA target recognition.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by binding to target messenger RNAs and by controlling protein production or causing RNA cleavage. To date, functions have been assigned to only a few of the hundreds of identified miRNAs, in part because of the difficulty in identifying their targets. The short length of miRNAs and the fact that their complementarity to target sequences is imperfect mean that target identification in animal genomes is not possible by standard sequence comparison methods.
MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that recognize and bind to partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions of target genes in animals and, by unknown mechanisms, regulate protein production of the target transcript. Different combinations of microRNAs are expressed in different cell types and may coordinately regulate cell-specific target genes. Here, we present PicTar, a computational method for identifying common targets of microRNAs.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of target genes by binding to the target mRNAs. Although a large number of animal miRNAs has been defined, only a few targets are known. In contrast to plant miRNAs, which usually bind nearly perfectly to their targets, animal miRNAs bind less tightly, with a few nucleotides being unbound, thus producing more complex secondary structures of miRNA/target duplexes. Here, we present a program, RNA-hybrid, that predicts multiple potential binding sites of miRNAs in large target RNAs.
MicroRNAs are key regulators of gene expression, but the precise mechanisms underlying their interaction with their mRNA targets are still poorly understood. Here, we systematically investigate the role of target-site accessibility, as determined by base-pairing interactions within the mRNA, in microRNA target recognition. We experimentally show that mutations diminishing target accessibility substantially reduce microRNA-mediated translational repression, with effects comparable to those of mutations that disrupt sequence complementarity.
Vertebrate mRNAs are frequently targeted for post-transcriptional repression by microRNAs (miRNAs) through mechanisms involving pairing of 3' UTR seed matches to bases at the 5' end of miRNAs. Through analysis of expression array data following miRNA or siRNA overexpression or inhibition, we found that mRNA fold change increases multiplicatively (i.e., log-additively) with seed match count and that a single 8 mer seed match mediates down-regulation comparable to two 7 mer seed matches.
MicroRNAs have emerged as important regulatory genes in a variety of cellular processes and, in recent years, hundreds of such genes have been discovered in animals. In contrast, functional annotations are available only for a very small fraction of these miRNAs, and even in these cases only partially.
We present rna22, a method for identifying microRNA binding sites and their corresponding heteroduplexes. Rna22 does not rely upon cross-species conservation, is resilient to noise, and, unlike previous methods, it first finds putative microRNA binding sites in the sequence of interest, then identifies the targeting microRNA. Computationally, we show that rna22 identifies most of the currently known heteroduplexes. Experimentally, with luciferase assays, we demonstrate average repressions of 30% or more for 168 of 226 tested targets.
MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that can complementarily bind to the mRNA 3'-UTR region to regulate the gene expression by transcriptional repression or induction of mRNA degradation. Increasing evidence suggests a new mechanism by which miRNAs may regulate target gene expression by binding in promoter and amino acid coding regions. Most of the existing databases on miRNAs are restricted to mRNA 3'-UTR region.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded non-coding RNAs known to regulate a wide range of cellular processes by silencing the gene expression at the protein and/or mRNA levels. Computational prediction of miRNA targets is essential for elucidating the detailed functions of miRNA. However, the prediction specificity and sensitivity of the existing algorithms are still poor to generate meaningful, workable hypotheses for subsequent experimental testing.